Barren rock: : Rock that does not contain minerals in quantities sufficient to allow for economically profitable mining.

Blasting: : Technique to break ore in an underground or open-pit mine

Bulk sampling: : Removing mineral substances in substantial quantities (over 50 tonnes) in order to do mineral processing tests.

Claim : Mining right that grants holder the exclusive right to search, within a given territory, for any mineral substance. May exclude peat, sand, clay, gravel, hydrocarbons, brine and stone used for industrial purposes.

Concentrate : Substance of value produced by physical and/or chemical processing of ore.

The separation of economically valuable minerals from the gangue.

Core sample : Cylindrical sample of rock taken from the ground by drilling for research and exploration purposes.

Cross-cut : Drift in an underground mine that provides access to an orebody.

Crown or Surface Pillar : A body of rock of variable geometry, which may or may not contain minerals. Located above the underground operations, it supports the surface above stopes.

Development : A phase of activity ranging from confirmation of a mineral deposit to the decision to build a mine. Development includes all geological, engineering and economic work necessary to ensure profitable mining and compliance with applicable laws.

Diamond : The hardest and most brilliant of all precious gems. Drills are equipped with diamond tips in order to cut through hard rock.

Drift (tunnel) : Underground passageway that provides access to mining operations.

Drilling : Piercing a hole in rock. In exploration, drilling allows for samples of the rock to be taken. In mining, it is used to insert explosives for blasting.

Dyke (vein) : A long mass of eruptive rock, a dyke (vein) may consist of mineral deposits located between other rocks.

Erosion : Wearing away and transformation of the earth's crust caused by water (rain, sea), ice and atmospheric agents (wind).

Exploration : In the broad sense, the whole range of mining activity from searching for and developing mineral deposits to developing the mine. In the strict sense, the search for mineral deposits up to discovery and includes the deliniation of the deposit by means of drilling and sampling.

Extraction : Mining activity that consists of removing the rock from an underground or open-pit mine.

Foundry/smelter : A pyrometallurgical plant where the concentrate is chemicaly reduced in order to extract the metal or metals it contains.

Gangue : Rock surrounding a mineral or precious gem in its natural state.

Geochemistry : The study of the chemical components of the earth's crust and mantle. Geochemistry is applied to mining exploration to detect sites that indicate abnormal concentrations either of the elements being sought or of their more readily detected associate elements. Depending on circumstance, geochemical exploration samples soils, rock and lake and stream sediments.

Geology : Science devoted to the study of the structure and evolution of the earth's crust

Geophysics : Study of the various physical properties of the earth and the composition and movement of its component layers of rock. Geophysics is applied to mining exploration to detect zones characterized by their physical properties such as magnetism, gravity or conductivity (electromagnetism).

Gold : A very ductile and malleable brilliant yellow precious metal that is resistant to air and water corrosion.

Grinding : Means of reducing ore into very small particles by means of pressure or impact. Different types of grinders are used in the processing plant to obtain the desired dimension.

Head frame : Structure above the mine shaft containing the equipment necessary for lowering and raising equipment and personnel, and for raising the ore which is generally stored in a ore bin before being transported to the processing plant.

Hematite : The most common iron ore, it is a natural iron oxide that is reddish or brown in colour.

Infrastructure : Construction necessary for mining, such as certain buildings, gas pipes, water lines, sewage and water systems, telephone cables and reservoirs. It may also include roads, railways, airports and bridges, as well as transmission lines, electrical cables, pylons and transformers.

Iron : A ductile and malleable greyish white metal used in making steel.

Leaching : Slow passage of a solvent through a layer of porous or crushed material in order to extract valuable components. For example, gold can be extracted by heap leaching a porous ore or pulverized tailings.

Lead : A heavy soft malleable ductile but inelastic bluish white metallic element found mostly in combination and used in pippes, cable sheaths, batteries, solder, type metal, and shields against radioactivity.

Metamorphism : Changes over time, in the composition and structure of rocks caused by pressure and temperature.

Mill/concentrator Processing plant : Surface plant facilities for ore treatment that allow for the recovery and removal of metals or the concentration of valuable minerals for smelting and refining.

Mine : A plant built to extract an ore or mineral substance either underground or from the surface. When the ore is extracted underground, the mine needs a system of excavations in the rock to gain access to the ore areas. When the ore is mined from surface, the ore is extracted from one or several pits.

Mineral : An inorganic natural substance which is characterized by its atomic structure and physical and chemical properties.

Mineral deposit : Mineralized mass that may be economically valuable, but whose characteristics require more detailed information. An ore body being mined may be called a deposit.

Mineral processing : Process of extraction and concentration of economic minerals contained in ore. Mineral processing includes various procedures that rely on the mineral's gravimetric, and magnetic characteristics, on its colour, on reagents to make target particles float to the surface (flotation).

Mining : Activity whose purpose is the extraction, concentration, smelting of economic minerals from a mineral deposit. It includes exploration (in the strict sense), development of mineral deposits, constructing the mine and mining, i.e. extracting and processing the ore or tailings.

Ore : A natural aggregate of one or more minerals that can be mined and profitably sold under current conditions, or from which one or more minerals can be profitably extracted.

Ore reserves : The portion of a mineral deposit that can be profitably mined. Use of this term implies both an appropriate detailed knowledge of all the geological, engineering, economic and environmental parameters that might affect on profitability of the operation. For a new mining project or for the mining of new zones in an existing mine, a formal feasibility study is conducted to evaluate all parameters of the project.

Orebody : Mineralized mass whose characteristics have been determined and deemed commercially viable. The term orebody is used once the economic limits of the mineralized mass and its grade have been examined.

Panning : Operation that consists of separating heavier minerals such as gold and sulphides from lighter metals in stream sediment, loose soil or crushed rock in a container shaped like a frying pan. In arid countries a similar operation, winnowing, can be performed without water.

Possible reserve : Ore deposits whose continuity has been determined from limited sampling information and reasonable extrapolation. It does not stand alone but is an extension of, or additional to, proven or probable reserves. Possible reserves are excellent targets for increasing a probable reserve and for extending the deposit over a larger and generally deeper area.

Primary crushing : Process of reducing blasted ore into smaller fragments so that it can be transported to the processing plant. In underground mines, the primary crusher is often located underground, or at the entrance to the processing plant.

Probable reserve : Ore deposits whose continuity has been confirmed by samplings on a relatively detailed grid. The density of the grid allows for fairly precise determination of tonnage, density and mineral and metal content sufficient to prepare draft preliminary mining plans. It is that part of an ore deposit for which economic viability has been demonstrated at a confidence level which would justify a commitment to major expenditures. Developing a new mine is usually undertaken with probable and proven reserves.

Processing : Operation consisting of extracting the economically valuable mineral or minerals from ore or tailings.

Prospecting : In the broad sense, prospecting refers to exploration. In the strict sense, prospecting describes the search for surface mineralized showings (by prospectors).

Proven reserve : Ore deposits whose tonnage, density and mineral or metal content are known in detail. This implies that sampling and drilling have been carried out in a regular grid located near mine workings. A proven reserve is that portion of an ore deposit for which technical and economic factors have been established at a high confidence level. Tthe term is generally restricted to that part of a reserve which is being developed or mined, or for which there is a detailed mining plan.

Quarry : Site where stone, rock and construction materials are extracted. Open-pit operation.

Sedimentation : Formation of sediment. A sediment is a natural deposit created by the action of dynamic external agents such as water, wind, and ice.

Showing : An indication of mineralization, the extent and economic value of which are unknown.

Stope : Area of mine from which ore is or has been extracted.

Sulphur : Element that occurs in a nature state or in compounds such as sulphides.

Tonnage : The quantity of ore making up an ore body, or the rate at which ore is extrated.

Vein : Thin mineralized body. See "dyke".

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